More Moscow built high-rise buildings not only in residential areas, but also in the center. Destroy the old house, buried the ancient foundations, and in their place build new objects that are shocking in their size, blocking the view of the ancient city. As buildings become monuments where you can build and demolish homes, as developers bypassed the law and why it is important to look around, walking in Moscow – this tells the coordinator of the movement “Arhnadzor” Maria Korobova.
Excavator on Birzhevaya square in Moscow. Photo: archnadzor.ru
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How many in Moscow are recognized as cultural heritage?
On the website of the open data Portal are just 8257 objects.
As buildings become cultural heritage?
Or is our old cultural heritage, which in Soviet times was under the protection of, or written request to the Department of cultural heritage of Moscow. Application in the prescribed form can be written as a simple person and legal entity. It includes all features which can be cultural heritage. This application is technically accepted and look: everything is filled in correctly designed according to the 73-mu to the Federal law. Then it becomes an object that has characteristics of object of cultural heritage. Further consider this request, and the Department decides to accept it as a revealed window or to refuse.
Now operates on the point system. By order of the Moscow cultural heritage Department from December 30, 2015 №478 “About approval of criteria of historical and cultural value of objects…” the object is to score more than 200 points to become a monument. The points according to different criteria. But it turns out that the ancient chambers of the one points, from classical mansions – the other, the modern Soviet era – the third. It is strange to compare modern and the house they all – cultural heritage, each in its time. If the building denied the status window, it becomes a city-forming object or a regular object environment.
Once the object was identified during the year must pass historical-cultural expertise. Accredited experts have written their conclusion and recommend that it be included in the registry such as the regional monument. If you put the Federal status, then undergo a deeper examination.
As objects are removed from the ranks of the CHP?
To bring out of the window, there should be a court with the Ministry of culture. Neither the developer so will not be able to do it. The demolition of the window – it is a rarity. Most often it is dismantled, for example, under the guise that it decayed or burned.
What kinds of object can be demolished and which cannot?
The object of cultural heritage can not endure. Only if it is completely destroyed, it is dismantled and re-assemble of the same materials. Here there is a big problem with wooden objects. There are still many mansions that plastered under the stone, but by themselves they are wooden. Many of the houses dismantled because, as explained, bruises gone, bug infested, something like that. But who knows, a bona fide expert wrote it or not?
In the buffer zone nor identified nor valuable gradofree objects also can not endure. But the usual and ordinary construction, which has no status, it is possible to carry and in the buffer zone. If Moscow had the status of historical settlement, such a free destruction would not be.
What can you build next to the monument and what not?
For example, any of the estate is the main house, outbuildings and land, fenced. It is believed that the territory of the monument – all this space where nothing should be built: this is the finished monument.
In addition, the object has a buffer zone. Not yet passed the examination about establishment of borders of a security zone of a monument arises automatically protection zone – circle written in the law of the radius. In the defensive zone too, nothing to build. After examination of the buffer zone has a certain configuration. It is also impossible to build. If demolition of a normal building, then you can only build from the same materials, the same extent size.
Why you need a buffer zone?
Buffer zone means the visibility of the monument from different angles. You can go out into the alley, turn the corner and see the temple. If you build something in the buffer zone, this object can spoil the view of the temple. For example, the Church of Peter and Paul on New Basmanny built in the backyard of a huge house. And a wonderful outline of the Church, which was created by Peter I, not visible due to the fact that his background is multi-story concrete box. The only thing that changed is that in the process of building changed the design and made the house a bookcase, stairs. But in any case this distortion.
How did flout the law and build up the territory?
The weakest point is the buffer zone that once approved, and now the Commission is trying to “cut” a piece of territory for new construction. Buffer zone review and get the positive decision from experts, who sometimes are not licensed by Ministry of culture. This patch build a new home.
In the center of Moscow is quite difficult to completely cut off because there is a lot of monuments and there are often the joint areas. But despite the fact that they covered almost the entire center, still in the same place something cut, another, a third, and then build. Developers explain this by the fact that next to, for example, is another high-rise and they can build a house of the same height. So, you should not do. Unfortunately, it is common practice.
There are examples of strange and egregious cases when they illegally destroyed heritage sites?
Sofiyskaya embankment. It is located opposite the Kremlin, and destroyed almost all historic buildings. The place is much subjected to restructuring from the Big Stone bridge to Faleevsky lane. The only island became the representation of Britain and the few IPOs that do not dare to touch. And the rest of the houses either completely cleaned out or left only a facade. There will build a box with this elite apartments on level 21. This is a fairly large building. They cater to the neighboring house. But it’s a security zone of the Kremlin, the joint security area’s many monuments. The Kremlin – a world heritage site. To do construction with him is, of course, a blatant case.
In charge also nothing good. There are no such violations, but completely distorted the relief, because this life was meadow territory, down to the water. There was Pskovskaya Gorka on Varvarka street, which was on the slide. Now it is a rearing area, and when you’re looking down on Zaryadye Varvarka street, which is about 580 years old, you do not see the ancient Church of St. George.
Another egregious example is associated with the installation of the object from the Borovitsky hill. We are not against the monument to St. Prince Vladimir, but we are against the installation of any monument in this place, is huge, covering specific points in the Pashkov house and the Kremlin towers.
As for archaeology, this event at Exchange square in Kitay-Gorod. They found the Foundation of the temple of the XVI century, houses the XII century carried out excavations. Chief archaeologist has reported that there really is an archaeological heritage site, and the project “My street” there had to be a fountain. When the project is revealed, the public has loudly spoken that can’t happen. But in the end the Foundation still destroyed, covered with earth, then dug a pit. So protected cultural heritage…
What are the options for the preservation of heritage?
Restoration, adaptation to modern conditions. By and large, many of the architectural monuments is used as directed. The old city buildings, e.g. apartment houses – this beautiful apartment. They cannot cut down the stucco, change Windows, it is necessary to keep the fireplace. This may cause people some inconvenience, but if you choose this housing, you are committed. In good condition, as are many embassies. Many wealthy people don’t mind living in an old mansion. And the churches should be temples.
We have several churches-AIO, which are not transferred to the Church and are operated differently. This, for example, old believer Church of the Dormition of the Mother of God to the Marxist street. He beheaded, but the volume is preserved. It was built in appearance the same as the Church of the Dormition in the Kremlin. Now the hostel. When was the renovation, people voted for the demolition because it is impossible to live. It is clear that they just want more housing. Of course, the Church should not be a dormitory.
Slowly still, there is a transfer of the temples of the Church, it’s a matter of time. Of course, there is the Moscow program “200 temples” on which to build a new one. But still, the old churches, too, need to recover our heritage.
What can activists against the construction?
If activists Arhnadzor, we already know where to look and how to act. Any caring person can also help Arhnadzor. You can just walk down the street and look around, noticing how changed Moscow. If he sees that somewhere the demolition of the old house, he can either call the hotline and report it, or leave a request on the website of the Department of cultural heritage, not to pass by. There is Facebook, where you can write a post with pictures about this house, to pay attention to it. Or send us mail at info and we can check the Windows or not. If he has the status, it is a direct conversation with the Department, if not – then start to keep this more seriously.
If all paid for and really not going anywhere – to write in the media, to raise MPs, who sometimes has meetings, such as was the case with the house Chernikova, 2nd Neopalimovskiy lane. If you relax and say that nothing can be done, then the old house will not be under the window will grow tridcatogo. Indifferent – this is important.