21 November 2018 Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Kirill and Moscow mayor Sergei Sobyanin visited one of the most famous churches in Moscow — Church of the ascension (“the Great Ascension”) in Watchmen at Nikitsky gate, said patriarhiei. In 2017-2018, the temple has undergone a major restoration work that became the final stage of the revival of the Moscow shrines.
The Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Moscow mayor was welcomed by the rector of the Church of “Great Ascension”, the Secretary of the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia in Moscow, Protopresbyter Volodymyr Diakov.
About the outcome and repair and restoration work on the painting in the interior of the Church was told by the Deputy Director for research and restoration of the State research Institute of restoration of Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation S. V. Filatov.
His Holiness Patriarch Kirill and Sergei Sobyanin praised the restoration work in the temple.
Referring to the mayor of Moscow, his Holiness said: “Under Your leadership, is developing a large-scale program for the restoration of Moscow’s churches. This temple is our pearl, now is already completed restoration work, so big thanks to You and all Your colleagues for the great work”.
In turn, Sergei Sobyanin congratulated his Holiness Patriarch happy birthday: “Your efforts are returning temples. It’s monuments and it is a gift to all Muscovites, and You, too, for Your efforts. Today we will visit another wonderful monastery, one of the most ancient monasteries of Moscow. It so happened that the end of the work it coincided with Your birthday. On behalf of Muscovites, I congratulate You and wish You happiness, health and success”.
Then his Holiness Patriarch Kirill and Moscow mayor Sergei Sobyanin called for vysoko-Petrovsky stauropegial monastery, where, accompanied by the Abbot of the monastery Abbot Peter (Yeremeyev) has reviewed the progress of restoration of the architectural complex of the monastery. The inspection was attended by Plenipotentiary representative of Russian President in Central Federal district Igor Shchegolev.
The ensemble consists of 12 buildings. In 2016-2018 it was refurbished bell tower with the gate Church, 1690; the Church of Peter the Metropolitan, 1505, 1690; the Church of Pachomius over the South door, 1753-1755.; Sergius refectory, 1690, 1739
In the Church of St. Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow, had a conversation the Primate of the Russian Church and the Moscow mayor.
Sergei Sobyanin noted that the vysoko-Petrovsky monastery “is a significant part of the annals of our city.” “It is very important to bring it in order to restore the joint efforts of the Patriarchate and the Ministry of culture. I think that this work will continue, although today we can say that we have made considerable progress. A number of facilities, including the Central main temple, restored”, — said the mayor.
His Holiness Patriarch Kirill thanked Sergei Sobyanin for participation in the restoration program, in particular, said: “vysoko-Petrovsky monastery is indeed a historical place. Ivan Kalita, invited the Metropolitan from Vladimir to Moscow, and since then the Department of the mother see was moved… in Fact, the rise of our capital and the city of Moscow as the capital associated with this place”.
Upon completion of the inspection, his Holiness Patriarch Kirill and Sergei Sobyanin talked to the correspondents of mass media.
“Moscow is a large complex of works on restoration of monuments. Such a huge figure — already this year more than a thousand monuments are listed in the order. Moreover, it is noteworthy that less than half of the restored city, and all the rest — at the expense of donations of patrons, the various departments that put in order the objects in their possession,” said Sergei Sobyanin.
Patriarch Kirill also noted the great amount of restoration work underway in the capital, particularly in the Orthodox churches. “It is remarkable that in the beginning of XXI century carried out such extensive restoration work. Besides the fact that Moscow is becoming prettier, changing streets, transportation, it is very important that the most ancient and the most valuable objects are restored, there is a real scientific restoration”, — said the Primate of the Russian Church.
“God help You and all those working on these noble objectives,” concluded Patriarch Kirill.
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The Church of “Great Ascension” with a total area of 2.3 thousand sq. m located to the address: street Big Nikitsky, d. 36, p. 1. Is the object of cultural heritage of Federal importance.
In 2017-2018, the temple has undergone a major restoration work, which completed the stage of revival of the Moscow shrines.
During these two years, experts have carried out a complicated repair and the restoration and conservation of paintings on walls and vaults of two chapels, the Central altar and the dome of the temple.
On the walls and vaults of the three altars and the cupola was reinforced plaster layer, removed accumulated over the years of soot. In addition, was restored faux marble and stucco that adorn the temple. Repaired the roof, which allowed to eliminate the threat of leaks and destruction of the restored painting.
Designer — LLC “Art restoration” (the main architect of the project S. V. Filatov). The General contractor — LLC “STG Group”. Financing of works was carried out by the urban programme, grants and private donations.
The first mention of a wooden Church of the ascension Church in Watchmen relates to 1619 In the end of XVII century near the Church of the ascension was located at the country Palace and the courtyard of the second wife of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov — Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina, mother of the future Emperor Peter I. it is Assumed that in 1670 on the site of the burnt wooden Church, she began to build a new stone, which was completed in 1680-ies.
In the XVIII century in the parish Church of the ascension was the house of Alexander Vasilievich Potemkin, the father of Prince Grigory Potemkin-Tauride. In 1780 Grigory Potemkin decided to rebuild the Church of the ascension and to build on the plot he owned the “temple of the new, gorgeous” not less than 60 m. the New Church was supposed to be called the Church of the Preobrazhensky life guards regiment, as nearby there was a “regimental court.”
The first architect of the temple was Vasily Ivanovich Bazhenov. However, after the death of Prince G. A. Potemkin, in 1791, the case of the construction of the Church was continued by major-General N. P. Vysotsky, who was attracted by another famous architect of the time of Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov.
The construction of the new Church of the ascension began in the spring of 1798, According to the project the Church was to be a grandiose Cathedral with a high bell tower, a gallery and a facade decorated with sculptures. Construction has been slow. To 1812 was built and finished only a refectory. The building of the temple was not even built half — finished was only the Foundation and basement, installed a base for columns. However, in the 1812 fire that engulfed 90% of the Moscow houses and various buildings, have not survived and the Church of the ascension. Burned and drawings by M. F. Kazakov. So the Church began to build on scorched ruins anew. Refectory the newly finished pretty quickly, and in 1816 it began to hold Church services. By the way, for the first time the present name of the temple “Great Ascension” — is also found in documents Dating from 1816
On the remaining drawings of the project of the new Church are the signatures of architects F. M. Shestakov, N. And. Kozlovsky, A. G. Grigoryev. The project has put his hand of the great Russian architect Osip Bove, who revived the harsh cubic volume of the temple is the ionic portico with 4 columns.
For various reasons the construction of the temple lasted for several decades. Point was only in 1840, when the consecration of the temple. By this time, was finished not only the construction work, completed in 1836, but the painting of the Church done by a gang of Italian artists. The iconostasis was made by the architect M. D. Bykovsky. The old Church of ascension was demolished, but the bell tower of the old Church, separately standing on the site of the present square at the monument to the writer A. N. Tolstoy demolished was not and lasted until the 1930s.
In the “Great Ascension” was a landmark event in the history of Moscow. Perhaps the most striking of them is the wedding of Alexander Pushkin and Natalia Nikolaevna Goncharova, which took place on 18 February 1831, in the unfinished temple. Many years later, in 1999 — the 200th anniversary of the birth of the poet, near the temple to commemorate this event was erected the fountain rotunda “Natalia and Alexander”.
In 1920, the temple took place the wedding of the daughter of Fyodor Ivanovich Shalyapin — during the sacrament, heard a powerful bass great Opera singer, who read “the Apostle.”
In guide books on Moscow of the XIX century invariably indicated that the Church of the ascension at Nikitsky gate was especially popular among the Moscow intelligentsia, who lived in the city centre. Gradually established the tradition of burial in this temple of illustrious representatives of the Moscow theatrical world. In particular, in the last journey here, accompanied the great Russian actors Mikhail Semenovich Shchepkin (1863) and Maria Nikolaevna Yermolova (1928).
The Church also witnessed the terrible bloody events of 1917, According to eyewitnesses, on the area of Nikitsky gate, right outside the walls of the temple, was particularly heavy fighting between the cadets, to defend the Provisional government and the Bolsheviks. November 13, 1917 in temple “Great Ascension” was held the funeral of the cadets and officers who died during the October fighting.
April 23, 1922, the new government made the “Great Ascension” confiscation of Church valuables “on 500 roubles of gold, 4 pounds 20 pounds 42 spool silver, 12 gem stones, 2 pounds 12 pounds the bronze products.”
In 1925 here was served his last Liturgy Patriarch Tikhon.
Finally the Church was closed in the fall of 1931, a Silver crown, which was crowned by A. S. Pushkin and N. N. Goncharov, transferred to the State Armory. All the rest of the decoration of the Church were lost forever. The paintings on the vaults were destroyed or plastered over.
In 1937, demolished the belfry of the XVII century, and in its place, broke the square. After the Church was closed the building was handed over to various tenants. Who not only lived here: office, warehouse, workshops. The Church was partially rebuilt: made the 2nd floor, set walls, the walls punched new Windows, demolished the pediment above the columns. At one time it housed a Parking garage, and the main altar, struck the wall for entry of cars.
In the 1960s, the Church moved the laboratory for the study of high voltage electrical discharges and lightning protection Energy Institute. G. M. Krzhizhanovskogo, which left the building of the Church in 1987
However, the faithful Church was handed over immediately, for some time had the idea to open a cultural centre with a concert hall. In 1990, after numerous requests of Muscovites, the Church was returned to the Russian Orthodox Church, a group of volunteers began to restore it.
September 23, 1990, was made a rank of consecration of the small temple “Great Ascension”, marked the beginning of daily worship.
May 20, 1999, the feast of the ascension, the rite of the great consecration was made Patriarch Alexy II.
In 2002-2004 discovered the Foundation of the bell tower, demolished in 1937, built a new 61-metre high bell tower. Its project was developed by architect-restorer O. I. Zhurin based on the unrealized project of F. M. Shestakov. Also in the 2000s, was the restored facades of the temple.
In 2012, work was carried out on the ramp and stairs from the street Malaya Nikitskaya, reinforced brick masonry vaults and walls of the refectory, as well as 7 fence posts. In 2015, the Moscow Government has completed upgrades Bolshaya and Malaya Nikitskaya streets.
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The ensemble of the vysoko-Petrovsky monastery located at the address: street Petrovka, 28. Is the object of cultural heritage of Federal importance.
The ensemble consists of 12 buildings. In 2016-2018, the work was carried out for the restoration of 4 of them:
1) the Bell tower with the gate Church, 1690, which is one of the architectural dominants of Petrovka street.
In 2016-2017 carried out the restoration of facades, plaster decoration, the flooring of the upper levels, arcade and interiors, magyaroknak stairs. Repaired the head (held rinsing the plated surfaces). Reinforced masonry walls, vaults, arches and travel of the stylobate. Holds the device of the drainage system. Restored white-stone plinth and the roof. The device is made of white stone covering Playground with water cannons and restoration of pinacle, Skirtings, window and door fillings, stained glass block, white stone and wooden floors
2) the Church of Peter the Metropolitan, 1505, 1690 — one of the oldest churches in Moscow, built on the site of the vysoko-Petrovsky monastery on the project of Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin (New).
In 2017-2018 completed the restoration work on the facade and roof of the Church with strengthening of masonry, the white stone flooring and paving, reconstruction of window and door fillings, restoration of the Foundation, steps, porch, painting.
3) Gateway Church of Pachomius, 1753-1755.
In 2016, the company carried out work on the restoration of the facades of the Church, its white walls (the stylobate), cap, decoration and porch, fencing Playground, interiors and flooring, the restoration of window and door fillings, repair and restoration of the roof, the device of the drainage system.
4) Sergius refectory, 1690, 1739
In 2018, work is underway on the restoration of the facades of the quadrangle and the apses (including the white-stone decor), roof structures of the quadrangle, chapters etc to be finished in 2019.
The General contractor — LLC “STG Group”. Scientific-methodological guidance and field supervision JSC “Institute of restoration of monuments of history and culture memorials “Spetsproektrestavratsiya””. Financing of works was carried out in the framework of the programme of subsidies of the Moscow Government to religious organizations for restoration of architectural monuments.
Vysoko-Petrovsky monastery — one of the oldest monasteries of Moscow, the base of which is connected with the name of Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia Peter, who suffered Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow.
The chronicle tradition says that one day Prince Ivan Kalita saw in a dream a snow-peaked mountain. In the eyes of the Prince of the snow has melted in the air, and then disappeared and the mountain itself. Metropolitan Peter, and addressed the Prince, I interpreted this dream as a prophecy of the death. First he would die, Peter (the Saint wore on his head a white cowl), and the Ivan Kalita. It happened, although Prince Ivan survived the Metropolitan for 14 years. In the place where in the dream stood a beautiful mountain, and was founded vysoko-Petrovsky monastery.
In 2015, was the 700th anniversary of the monastery. The name of the monastery their names got Petrovka street and Peter’s gate in the wall of the White city.
After Prince Ivan Kalita builders and benefactors of the monastery were Grand Dukes Dmitry Donskoy, Vasily III, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, Peter I and his mother, Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkin, St. Philaret of Moscow.
Until the end of the XV century information about the ensemble or about the individual buildings of the monastery, the documents do not exist.
The first stone Church of the Holy Hierarch and Wonderworker Peter the Metropolitan appeared in the ensemble in the beginning of XVI century It was built on the site of the same name wooden Church on the project of Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin (New). The temple placed in the center of a quadrangular cloister, surrounded by perimeter walls, fences and monastic buildings.
In 1611, the monastery served as a defense Outpost of the Kremlin, the first people’s militia.
The main part of the modern architectural complex of the vysoko-Petrovsky monastery was built in XVII-XVIII centuries With 1684 1704 in the years around the Church of Peter the Metropolitan, the Central (“Church”) the courtyard, there was an expressive ensemble of stylistically homogeneous, monumental stone buildings, including the Bogolyubsky Cathedral with the Shrine of the Naryshkins, the refectory Church of the venerable. Sergius of Radonezh, the Holy gates with gate Church of the Intercession, and a high tiered belfry. In the neighborhood with them in the Central courtyard was an ancient necropolis and a few old stone and wooden buildings.
Major reconstruction was carried out on the initiative of the tsarina Natalia Kirillovna, nee Naryshkina, with the personal participation of Peter I and his decrees. The works were performed systematically, the buildings were constructed by experienced craftsmen. The interiors of the temples were decorated with iconostasis, executed by the best engravers, gold and painters of the Sovereign Armoury. The interior walls are painted.
In 1680-1690 on the Western border of the South yard, along the line of Peter’s street was erected the long and elegantly decorated 2-storey building of the Naryshkin chambers.
The middle of the XVIII century is the second important stage in the building history of the monastery, connected with liquidation of consequences of fires 1703 and 1712. and the addition of new ensemble members.
The success of the reconstruction provided active work of the Abbot of the monastery Archimandrite Pachomius (1730-1750-ies), which coincided with the heyday of the Moscow school of architecture of the Baroque and the creativity involved in the restoration of the monastery of architects I. F. Michurin and D. V. Ukhtomsky.
One of the outcomes of the reconstruction was the creation of the Central courtyard Autonomous residential complex with two-storey prior’s house. In the middle of the century, the ensemble has added two new temple: the Church in honor of the icon of the Tolga mother of God and the Church of St. Pachomius, above the Rear gate.
In 1771 in Moscow the plague was raging, the Church was built by the hospital.
Significant damage to the monastery suffered during the Patriotic war of 1812, it stopped to wait the French cavalry. The temples were ruined and subjected to desecration. Survived wooden buildings, however the main stone building was not damaged
Historically spatial planning structure of the monastery ensemble, involving architectural unity of three functionally independent parts — the Central (“monastery” or Church yard), North (cloister garden) and South (farmyard), persisted from the beginning of the XVIII century till the beginning of 30-ies of the XIX century, Further changes were caused by factors related to economic issues and the task of survival of the monastery in the new historical conditions. With the 1830-40s most of the “secular” areas of the monastery ensemble was rented. In the Naryshkin chambers located religious school, bookstore, library.
The monastery was a major educational center, its abbots were appointed by the rectors of Moscow and other spiritual academies.
In 1918, vysoko-Petrovsky monastery was abolished, but his temples were the center of underground monastic communities, which included the outstanding people of the twentieth century: scientists, writers, doctors. In 1926 he closed the last Bogolyubovo Church.
In 1929 the building of the ensemble was transferred to the jurisdiction of the State historical Museum on the rights of the branch, but in fact its territory and areas controlled by the city. In historic buildings was occupied by the Soviet institutions and communal apartments. In the Church yard were sheds, garages and other buildings of industrial character, serving the plant for the repair of agricultural machinery.
After the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945, the monastery came under the direct jurisdiction of the Ministry of culture of the RSFSR, which changed the nature of the temporary use of premises and covering repair and restoration and scientific restoration work. In one of the temples was organized by the rehearsal of the ensemble “birch”. The gradual revival of the vysoko-Petrovsky monastery lasted more than half a century.
Since 1991 the temples of the monastery began to recover parish life and performed divine service. October 10, 2009 the decision of the Patriarch and the Holy Synod at the monastery revived the monastic life.
The main Shrine of the monastery is a revered icon with the Holy relics of Saint Peter of Moscow.
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The Moscow government continues implementation of the program of restoration of monuments of religious significance. Starting in 2011, work was carried out at 85 temples: 33 objects — at the expense of the state program “Culture of Moscow”; for 52 objects at the expense of the city program of subsidies allocated by the Government of Moscow religious organisations.
Completed restoration of churches 54. Among them, in 2018:
- the ensemble of the Novospassky monastery — the Refectory, the XVI-XVII centuries with the Church of the Intercession, 1670-1678.;
- the ensemble of the vysoko-Petrovsky monastery, the end of the XVII-XVIII centuries — the Church of Metropolitan Peter;
- the ensemble of the Nativity monastery, the beginning of the XVI century, XVII-XVIII and beginning of XIX century — the Cathedral, 1501-1505.;
- the Church of “Great Ascension”, 1848, architect. A. G. Grigoriev;
- Church “Small Ascension”, the end of the XVI century — early XVII century;
- Church Louis, 1830, architect. Gilardi;
- the identified object of cultural heritage “Complex of almshouses at the St. Petersburg highway,” the Imperial Philanthropic society;
- Church of Vladimir, 1672;
- the ensemble of the Nativity monastery, the beginning of the XVI century, XVII-XVIII and beginning of XIX century — the Crypt Lobanov-Rostovsky, 1676-1677. (Tomb);
- the ensemble of the Ivanovo monastery XVII-XIX centuries., 1860-1879., arch. Bykovsky M. D. — Case hospital with the Church of the PDP. Elizabeth.
Since 2011, in Moscow renovated 1 160 cultural heritage sites, including: 488 monuments at the expense of the city budget, 257 monuments by the Ministry of foreign Affairs, the Ministry of culture and other Federal Executive authorities, 395 monuments at the expense of private investors and philanthropists.
As a result, the number of Moscow monuments in poor condition, decreased 5.3% from 1 325 in 2010 to 248 in 2018 (from 39% to 6%, respectively).