What speech problems might be faced by the student, whether they go by themselves and how to cope if cinched up high school – says Olga Azova, candidate of pedagogical Sciences, associate Professor of the Department of correction MPSU, Director of the children’s neurological and rehabilitation center “Logomed Prognoz”.
Photo: Julia Otto
- Dysgraphia: teach or treat?
- Pefect fiction
- Anderson was also dyslexic
- Speech therapist Olga Azova: I always relied on hooligans
- “My advice to parents: enrich the child’s vocabulary” – 5 questions for children’s speech therapist
Assess the situation can only competent professionals
– Olga Ivanovna, what this problem can prevent successful training and are there any that you can not learn in a regular school?
– If it is only about speech therapy diagnoses, that there is none among them that do not allow the child to learn in a regular school. Moreover, the modern idea of education is the implementation of inclusive education of children. There is a logopedic conclusion, in which it is desirable visits to the speech of the school.
It is important to remind the teacher that if the child is violation of the letter or writing, then evaluate his work more loyally, believing, for example, multiple speech errors, for one.
So, what are some speech therapy conclusions children can come to school. This, for example, phonetic and phonemic underdevelopment (FIP). If the preschool age child does not have time to put and automate sounds, this problem may not affect the formation of letters and writing, the so-called aesthetic defect – the wrong pronunciation of sounds you can learn.
Many examples from life of adults who are irregular pronunciation did not prevent to realize in life and profession. But the second component – phonemic violation, just a very can affect the formation of letters. If the school does not deal with the correction of the violation of phonemic hearing and not to propaedeutic activities, then reading and writing can appear specific mistakes in phonemic dyslexia and dysgraphia acoustic.
It is also important to say that it’s good to do all the time, in this case to school. In my experience no child, with whom I worked before school the solution to this problem, subsequently had digravina errors on the letter.
When faced with a child with General underdevelopment of speech (ONR), which for a long time did not speak or had violations in the formation of vocabulary, grammar, connected speech, that is incorrectly used and formed the words that changed endings and the like, then, in principle, a child can master the skill of writing, but more prone to disruption of the development of orthographic skills may have difficulty learning the rules of spelling.
Due to poor vocabulary and peculiarities of formation the word formation of the child is difficult to pick up the check words (here are examples from the practice: “to bite” – verification word “beak“, “far””long“, “surrounding” – “the peasants“) or is having difficulty writing summaries and essays, because the complicated types of work, and especially the acquisition of coherent speech moved from preschool to school.
There are complex speech disorders such as alalia. With severe speech disorders need to work holistically – we need not only sessions with a speech therapist, psychologist, neuropsychologist, but the supervising doctors, and restoring motor functions, the use of non-pharmacological methods of stimulation. If a child is only concerned with the speech therapist or the classes started late, by the school this child may not be able to correct.
Children with severe speech disorders (alalia in history) had previously attended secondary school, and speech, but the number of such schools is reduced. The child had the opportunity to be in classes with only 10-15 students instead of 30, this means that they had more opportunities to hear what the teacher says.
All basic subjects were taught a teacher-speech therapist who was able to structure the material according to how it is formed in children in ontogenesis, gave short instructions. In the end, the material is digested easier. In secondary schools, on the contrary, there was a bias due to the fact that the curriculum, the basis, the experts are not ready to educate children with severe speech disorders. Parents are offered other forms of training, which almost lead the student from school.
I would like to save speech of the school that parents had a choice between speech and secondary school, and the child with speech problems could for a greater period of time to go through the curriculum of public schools in more favorable conditions (small classes, subjects teacher-the logopedist, the additional hours for training and program material) and then go to the ordinary life.
We tend to want to look like it does in other countries. Now, in many countries there is inclusion, and special education.
– As parents to understand what to choose – a voice school or General education, and to compensate for the problem classes with a speech therapist?
– There is a medical-psychological-pedagogical Commission, which was originally conceived in order to help parents make the right choice, to Orient in the diversity of programs, standards, find a school that is most conveniently located to home and meet the needs of the child. But it why-that often happens in our education system that it is of a recommendatory body sometimes becomes punitive. And instead of helping, coming to the Commission, parents get a lot of problems.
In General, to assess the situation may competent professionals:
1. A neurologist, he deals with the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of diseases related to activity of the nervous system.
2. Speech therapist, he evaluates how developed speech and identifies problematic issues in its formation.
3. Psychologicalg, he assesses the maturity, the readiness of higher mental functions, sets the lateral profile (the lead hand and other paired organs), motivation and psychological readiness.
4. The neuropsychologist. It can also tell about the readiness and maturity of development of the brain blocks and neural connections.
The school can not be run, and the speech therapist allows
– Interfere with learning of the syndrome of attention deficit and hyperactivity?
– Of course, interfere with both components of the syndrome. If the child is inattentive, he is inconsiderate in all areas. He quickly gets tired, restless, not holding the head of the user, he has bad oral-aural memory. If is added, and hyperactivity (ADHD), the child is difficult to maintain the body at rest. Such children go to hard in the learning process.
The instructions that come from the teacher, to the child with ADHD may simply not be reached. Such a child at school can be very difficult to interact with adults, because many teachers aims to ensure that children are heard by all and the first time, and the child with ADHD is falling all is lost, it is difficult to gather, he’s distracted by irrelevant things, can not stand in place when all is quiet stand in formation.
When I worked as a speech therapist in school, I was very sorry for these children. To me they came already tired after the first training shift.
Come to class and say, “Who is in speech therapy classes, come to me”, and some of the guys: “can I have the first floor to escape, and then to you – until you from the third floor down I will have time.”
Here’s what to do – ban? We all remember that the school can not be run, and the speech therapist permits. And running doesn’t always help – not every child can then be collected and tune in to the classes. I tried not only fun to do, but suit different motor recess on the carpet (it’s a long way, it requested the Director), dealt not only in notebooks but also on large sheets of paper.
– Then you need expert help, not just parents?
– With these children is not easy. On the one hand, these children need time to grow up, or rather, into your syndrome, learned the “rules of life” ripe, formed, grown up – all of these characteristics are suitable for children with ADHD. Syndrome or “retreat” to adolescence, or it remains for life. In the second case, people with ADHD adapt to the syndrome and live.
On the other hand, among children with the syndrome those who responded to treatment and correction. When deficiency of attention will be useful, sessions with a psychologist and neuropsychologist.
Also have hyperactive children often have neurological problems, disruption of blood flow. Among the appointments neurologist – physical therapy, massage, biofeedback mytinger, sessions the osteopath.
When carrying out the audio test in children with ADHD at low frequencies (from 125 Hz to 1000 Hz) bone conduction to air dominates the perception. Parents complain of motor disinhibition, distractibility, fatigue, decreased concentration. Can you recommend auditory therapy based on the method by Alfred Tomatis (Besson).
That is, we have to see what the problem is in perseverance or in interaction, and then solve it with specific specialists.
In high school the problem will not go away
– Generally it is said that speech problems: dysgraphia, dyslexia, etc., are manifested in elementary school. While in high school?
– If the problem has not been resolved in elementary school, then safely go into high school. These diagnoses require correction. If a child, for example, dyslexia, the learning process in the school as a whole becomes very difficult, because in all subjects the child should be able to read. It only increases the number of errors.
So, if in fourth grade the child aurally or visually does not distinguish between the sounds and doing the appropriate error message, without the corresponding lessons as he begins to see them in high school? Disgrafija error, except that it is specific and is repeated in all types of writing, still persistent, that is, without correction fails. Well, now that the school has a speech pathologist and they can help a child in elementary school. If the child is in elementary school were left without speech therapy services, he continues to make mistakes.
Problems dysgraphia and dyslexia are troublesome and adults.
One student group I lectured on disorders of writing, all students wrote and one girl – no. The story was repeated more than one lecture. I gently asked why, the answer is: “You talk about the difficulties that I experience so far”. Some students due to the similar difficulties do not write, and print on the computer.
If the school the child had a diagnosis of “General underdevelopment of speech”, it means that he has possible problems not only with phonetics and phonemic, but also with vocabulary, grammar. Speech problems in General, such children before school seem to have been resolved, but in the third and fourth grade may be new – already not in writing, and in writing. Can, first, be preserved lexical substitution (not “sea”and “lake“, not “stump“, and “log”) and grammatical difficulties (“birds sitting on the pond“instead of “pond”).
Secondly, when we are actively studying the rules of spelling, the child begins to make dysorthographia error. He makes a mistake and then picks up her test words. For example, the word “bloody” so the child can pick up a verification word, “red.” Because he has a associative array: “Blood – red” — but choose the word “blood” test he can not, he must find a word that would suit his error.
Or another example, two words: “to dedicate” and “devote” to the first word, most likely, children will be able to pick up the word verification “light,” because the word common and the word “devote” – no, children have difficulty selection, can you think of a non-existent word “sweet” by analogy with the word “light” or nothing will select. And since here the issue is speech, just explanations, nothing to fix, need a lot of hard work.
– How to help your child with speech therapy problems in high school?
– In the fifth, the seventh grade and even in high school, it is important to understand if the speech problem is not corrected, she’s not going anywhere and we need her to do here and now.
For example, if the child has dysgraphia, it is necessary to go back to the very beginning of the problem, and then to start to build on her knowledge. First you need to find out what dysgraphia and whether there are difficulties associated with the development of writing whether or not the speed of writing.
Find out this will help the therapist: he knows how to deal with dysgraphia. If the child has no related diagnoses, that is, in General, he manages the comprehensive school program, you need to organize correctly to allocate time for classes, they must be at least two times per week, with homework to consolidate skills. Provided adequate assistance and regularity of classes correction will take about a year.
Forced to repeat that it will, if all other functions are normal and no gross speech disorders. If the child with heavy violations of the speech or intelligence, it is time for a correction to take need more.
Same with dysorthographia. The child cannot apply the rule because the school is not structures, offering only this rule to learn, and what to do with him – the child is hard to understand. So often it happens that the “body” rule, the child knows the definition of bounce from the teeth, but the ingredients are not available. The student does not see the location where you want the rule to apply (root, prefix, suffix, or ending), poorly and slowly picks up the check words, not enough time for the formation of spelling skills.
It often happens that in order to sustain the rules of the textbook offers two exercises – one at school, another at home. The rest of the school children suffer in which of two words to write “e” in “whisper” or “rustling”. And it is interesting that, for example, in a child five and four in mathematics, and rule on the Russian he doesn’t know what to do. But in the Russian language works the same logic, it is only necessary to explain to the child, structure the material.
For example, the unstressed vowel in the word consists of six equivalent skills: differentiating vowels and consonants, to determine the position of the stress in the word, to distinguish between stressed and unstressed vowels, locate and highlight the root morpheme in a word, to choose a cognate related words or form of the form, check the word, to be able to explain the lexical meaning of words, to distinguish cognate from cognate cognate words. First, working on each paragraph of the rules, many exercises, and only then offer exercises directly on the rule itself.
Agree that the ability to simultaneously perform as many functions need to train. In order for the rule were worked out, you need a skill to do lots and lots of exercises to see lots of examples. Then the child will not be afraid of this rule and you will see it in spontaneous speech, when he writes to dictation, presentation or essay.
Left-handed children are special only in our country
– Let’s talk about left-handed people. It is believed that if a child is left-handed, it is especially worth to prepare for school, parents expect some problems. Is it really so?
– Still more correct to use the term “left-handed child.” Now, left-handed children are special only in our country, where not so long ago the child was forbidden to write with his left hand. Then this senseless prohibition ended and was allowed to write as the child wants. But the myth that left – handers- special, left. Moreover, as only lifted the ban, there was another extreme that the left-handed – so very gifted, because once they have a working left arm, then developed right hemisphere.
In fact, among left-handed people very much, about 70 percent of those who have speech controlled by the left hemisphere, that is, they do not differ from their right-handed classmates who also have speech centers in the left hemisphere. Of the remaining 30 per cent to 15 per cent of left-handers speech is controlled by the right hemisphere and 15 bilateral control of speech.
Thus, only 15 percent – a truly left-handed. At the same time they can be problematic, and may not be. Previously, children with more developed right hemisphere gave the peptides to strengthen the work of the left, but “drowned” work those parts of the right hemisphere of the brain, responsible for creativity – music, painting and so forth, but caught himself in time and was canceled because it is better to have a talented artist or musician with a deuce on the Russian than mediocrity with a four.
In fact, all children are different, as well as left-handed too heterogeneous. If to speak about the problems with the letter of this category of children, you should start with the formulations, the formation of the grip, the tilt posture of the child while working. All other violations not specific to these children, if we are not talking about a retrained left-handed.
If the child has shared school problems, lose concentration and focus, get tired, irritable, then how would we have done with other children, so here is debug mode, improving health, immunity, reduce stress with the help of a psychologist improve the work of higher mental functions.
In my experience, are mostly met left-handed children who have speech centre in the left hemisphere, and no special talents, and problems, they did not differ. On the other hand, one time I was engaged with the left-handed girl, prone to genius. She’s beautiful and interesting drawing, but my grandmother on this subject, said: “we these pictures, if she deuces in Russian”.
With Russian girl, indeed, was not easy: we can say that her right hemisphere did not seem to give her the opportunity to write, dragging itself functions. She began to write and soon cried: “Let’s rip out this sheet and start again, because the ugly”. And we once again started doing the bug again and pulled out.
Until I told her quite sternly: “Nastya, let’s not cry over every fix and will work. Now carefully, beautifully, aesthetically pleasing scratch that — will fix the bug and will write next.” There is an important contact with the child, the degree of confidence to a specialist. After class a girl showed me your drawings, crafts. I was genuinely interested in her Hobbies.
– If the child working it’s the left hand how to help him, for example, with the letter?
– There are special left-handed copybook and pens that are comfortable to hold. I don’t see a problem of which hand a child writes. First we learn to sit correctly and hold a pen. If right-handed children slant to the right, then the left-handed may be left, as well as housing and a notebook deployed to the left. If the child writes in the usual way as a right-handed, you will not be able to see what I wrote. Selected tactics of capture and how to write a child – place the hand above the line or below the line.
Maybe it makes sense to talk about the fact that think about choosing curriculum. Neuropsychologists Valentina Eremeeva and Tamara Chrisman in the book “Boys and girls – two different worlds” suggests that some children need to look not only at what kind of hand they have working, but on the other paired sensory organs – eyes and ears, hands and feet.
Children who do everything “right” – ear, hand, leg, eye, the so-called levopimaric successful in mathematics and all exact items. Such a child can learn according to the standard technique, with emphasis on the development of speech and verbal thinking, and mathematics program Ludmila Peterson and Leonid Zankov, which will not be offered to children who have “left” lateral profile. They need the standard techniques, which use their advantageous spatial, creative thinking and imagination.
Sometimes mixed type – working left hand, right eye and so on and the child, for example, is prone to languages, then we can recommend a language school.
Japanese people in General argue that we need to develop two hemispheres, two arms, they have developed and the traditional letter – hieroglyphic (right) and alfabetizacao (leopolitano).
School and stress are almost synonymous
– How often does the child bothers to learn the stress?
School and stress are now almost synonymous. This number of programs now in schools, that it seems that teachers are lost in their number. Many programs are often overloaded, they have a lot of excess material, and because the lessons are difficult to alternate between work and rest.
Beginning of the school year is always stressful three months of relaxation, a complete withdrawal from the regime.
I remember in second grade for an hour did my homework and went to walk, but now teachers give such magazaine and in such numbers that already only one of their kind is stressful.
Answers at the blackboard, testing, control work is too stressful.
Bad if the child teaches the teacher punishing the two, and not even for the errors and backlogs, and for any blunder: forgotten album for drawing, a lost notebook… When twos are not for knowledge but for behavior, the inability to organize.
Stress arises from the pace when the child has no time to shift attention, just relax. Well, if the school or class has an unloading area, but how much do we know of such classes?.. Not all kids want to run through the corridors, some of you must sit in silence, and there are children who need to swing, jump on the ball, hang on to something. Each child differently restores the nervous system.
All children who come to me for advice, I ask: “do you Like the teacher? Don’t mess with him or you? Do you have friends in class?” One boy answered: “At the moment no.” When there is no friendship is too stressful, and some of the children grieved at the lack of friends. Moreover, the class may be such children, often from difficult families who know how to tease, call names, and the child does not know and does not know as on such to react – and this also causes stress.
Single story – with gadgets and outfits. Not every family can buy, and not every child will know how to respond to classmates, in order not to laugh, not hunted. One boy in a family of eight children, at the time the question “Where’s your phone?” replied that he is only at mom and dad, and they doesn’t own a TV, set-top boxes and tape. “Well, you advanced,” replied the children. “Yeah, but there are brothers and sisters.”
What happens in the brain during stress? Elevated levels of cortisol, which secrete the adrenal glands, forms the pathological processes in the brain. The first to suffer frontal lobe. When the stress dissipates the attention, and reduced efficiency in decision-making and planning, inadequate control and control of emotions, which are controlled by the frontal lobes. All of these features are very important in learning, making good decisions, motivation to study, which stress is reduced.
In children begins to appear lazy, decreases the level of independence, responsibility and discipline, irritation, and anxiety may be due to experienced violence. Chronic stress also suffer decrease in volume of the hippocampus (stimulates the growth of new neurons in the brain, new neural networks, participates in the formation of long-term memory) and amygdala (responsible for emotional memory). Amygdala is designed for survival, remember the violence, the stress, thereby protecting the body, while giving the fear and anger.
Children experiencing domestic violence, who become unable to learn new material in school, getting an f for the unlearned lesson. And all the cries on the part of parents and teachers only worsen the functioning of the hippocampus and amygdala. It is in ancient times, to survive, need was a bright, aggressive emotions, which helped in hunting wild animals or in battle with the enemy, now it only breeds sociopathy and violence.
Stress and stress causes fatigue. We list the most characteristic signs: loss of appetite, tearfulness, reduced performance, irritability, sleep disturbance. So children need to respect and to prepare in advance for stressful situations, to carry out preventive work.
Stress recedes, if the child has slept, he goes to school, cheerful, eat, received a long carbs, not sugar. Important limitation: a child is easier when he knows that home will eat, maybe sleep, and then do homework.
Something about homework for the child parents can do, and there is nothing to worry, since children is a big burden.
You need to strengthen your immune system, and in a city that is hard to do, so it is important to consider the rest of the city.
A special moment – the ability to repel stress. If the parents do not know how to do it, then don’t teach it and children. Aggression in your address, you need to learn to stop, no matter from the children she’s going or from the teacher. This does not mean that you need to teach the child to agressirovat himself in answer – no, should just be able to leave.
Well, if in class or at home for splashing out negative energy to your child can tap on something neutral, a sports bag or paw, to leave the balls, arrows, Darts, pressing on bubble wrap.
Classroom learning – myths and reality
Myth 1. In the speech (correctional) school bullies, children from disadvantaged families
In reality: This die thinking, sticking labels, which stretches from the times of the USSR. There also can be attributed to the expression “you can’t be a single mother”, “there are no disabled people”, “spinster”, “late”, “school”, “parents drank, that they have such a child was born.”
In the speech (correctional) school bullies, children from disadvantaged families is really a myth.
Such a truncated social mentality is common not only to people in our country. For example, in Japan, too, not to speak of children with disabilities, their “hide” at home. In fact, we are aware that children with problems are born in any family.
Here is one example from life. The girl’s mother, with whom I’ve been involved in, identified it in secondary school. The child had problems with speech and intelligence. If in elementary school together, we even coped with the program, then in high school, when I changed teachers.
A huge number of twos, the child is not kept pace, did not work well in a team, teachers did not want to carry out an individual approach, classmates, the girl was poisoned. If deuces is somehow possible to fix that with bullying to do nothing came out. In 7th grade the decision was made to transfer to one school.
Went to the PMPC. Not easy to understand when the child is already a teenager, knowledge is uneven, nevertheless, the direction of the transition was given. If in the old days the girl to school accompanied dad in the class and had no friends, then she got a girlfriend, a circle of common interests, autonomy (began in school together metro), the success rate is the best in class.
The girl graduated from high school, he entered and successfully went to College, passed state final attestation, any thoughts about further education, but today it is demanded. I immediately would like to note that I do not plead only for an exclusive education. I’m Pro-choice – corrective or inclusive.
If the school has created favourable environmental conditions, the girl could well study there, she had to go in the 7th grade, when the graduation was 2 years old. I told it only because no labels about antisocial families are not relevant here.
Myth 2. There are uneducable children
In reality: there Really are children for learning and education which is necessary to create special conditions.
There is unteachable children – is really a myth.
Then just need to remember the main law of the country – the Constitution. Right there for all children, and, speaking of unteachable, break the law and the law. You need to study the experience of other countries in helping children with severe disabilities.
For example, in Israel all have the right to attend and 21 years, parents must teach children to respect those rights provided by the state.
Myth 3. The stricter and more rigid frame, better learn
In reality: every society lives by rules. Restrictions everywhere – it is impossible to cross the road at a red light, rude, call people…
The stricter and more rigid frame, better learning – is really a myth.
This is also the remnants of the Soviet mentality, the punitive state. In fact, it is very important to maintain a balance and to remember that when training is encouragement, and not punishment, you need to praise your child for any success and to encourage. The only way you will be able to raise the child’s self-esteem.
How to live to the exam the child with speech problems
1. Choose your child’s loyal teachers. This is a difficult problem. Just happens in life, everything is exactly the opposite – children are forced to study with the teacher who “get it” initially. But there are still schools where the teacher is a mentor and valued there friendship between the children, where the student can see the person.
2. Solve the problem with specialists. School speech therapist helps to get rid of violations of reading and writing (dyslexia, dysgraphia and dysorthographia). The school psychologist helps to ensure normal development of the child, as well as conducting psychological diagnosis and remedial work, counselling families and teachers, involved in the set of first-graders and helps students to cope with the psychological difficulties in learning and interpersonal conflict. Neuropsychologist deals with problems of sensory-motor and cognitive development.
3. Refer to the doctor! If the child has a diagnosis (ADHD, dysfunction, headaches, scoliosis, myopia), the question best addressed with your doctor (neurologist, osteopath, masseur, optometrist).
4. Support the nervous system during exams preventive activities – even the doctor will recommend treatments (e.g., massage, vitamins).
5. Even if the child is generally healthy, but the school gives load, creates a stressful situation, strengthen your immune system, do gymnastics, and engage in sports and attend clubs.
6. Follow regime – nutrition (plan diet to proteins, long carbohydrates, fats), a full long sleep (9-11 hours 6 to 14 years and 8-10 from 14 to 17 years), the alternation of occupation and leisure (hours of work and 15 minutes rest).
7. Follow the hygiene and toilet – is not only a condition of life and work, but that directly affects the health of the body, the brain functioning is a necessity (bowel movement 1-2 times and 4-6 voids / day).
8. Plan recreation in advance of a change of scenery, activity, sea, fishing, in General, that the more the child will like.
9. Organize workplace (room) – zoning of rooms and classes, observance of silence. Relaxation of the event (running as balls, bean bags, sensory corners, walls-Legos), tools for stress relief (Darts, balls, sports punching bag). Use plans, diagrams, reminders, and always on paper.
10. All that you can to prepare in advance (to learn poems, to read the product, and even to practice a particular topic) – to exercise.